Output → Outcomes → Impact: a logic model for product development

Jason Yip
1 min readMar 16, 2024

Derived from the logic model by The Center for Social Impact Strategy at the University of Pennsylvania which I learned about from Josh Seiden’s Outcomes over Output.

UPDATE: Jeff Patton has a 2017 video which pretty much describes this model. I’m wondering if I learned this from him and forgot about it until now…

Outputs → Outcomes → Impact

Outputs: the capabilities and features we believe will lead to the outcomes we want.

Outcomes: observable changes in user behavior that we believe will lead to impact.

Impact: the value returned to the organization (e.g., increased revenue, reduced costs, etc.).

Product teams should be accountable more for outcomes, specific user behavior they’re trying to incrementally enable and encourage, than outputs (e.g., # of features delivered).

We use impact to assess whether our “theory of product” is correct, that is, does the user behavior we’re targeting actually produce the value to our organization in the long run.

Impact tends to be lagging so outcomes are more useful for ongoing management.



Jason Yip

Senior Manager Product Engineering at Grainger. Extreme Programming, Agile, Lean guy. Ex-Spotify, ex-ThoughtWorks, ex-CruiseControl